Amazon Athena is Amazon Web Services’ fastest growing service - driven by increasing adoption of AWS data lakes, and the simple, seamless model Athena offers for querying huge datasets stored on Amazon using regular SQL.
However, Athena is not without its limitations: and in many scenarios, Athena can run very slowly or explode your budget, especially if insignificant attention is given to data preparation. We’ll help you avoid these issues, and show how to optimize queries and the underlying data on S3 to help Athena meet its performance promise.
The following article is an abridged version of our new Amazon Athena guide. Download the full white paper here to discover how you can easily improve Athena performance.
What is Amazon Athena?
Amazon Athena is an interactive query service, which developers and data analysts use to analyze data stored in Amazon S3. Athena’s serverless architecture lowers operational costs and means users don’t need to scale, provision or manage any servers.
Amazon Athena users can use standard SQL when analyzing data. Athena does not require a server, so there is no need to oversee infrastructure; users only pay for the queries they request. Users just need to point to their data in Amazon S3, define the schema, and begin querying.
However, as with most data analysis tools, certain best practices need to be kept in mind in order to ensure performance at scale. Let’s look at some of the major factors that can have an impact on Athena’s performance, and see how they can apply to your cloud stack.
Understanding Athena Performance
Athena scales automatically and runs multiple queries at the same time. This provides high performance even when queries are complex, or when working with very large data sets. However, Athena relies on the underlying organization of data in S3 and performs full table scans instead of using indexes, which creates performance issues in certain scenarios.
How Does Athena Achieve High Performance?
Massively Parallel Queries
Athena carries out queries simultaneously, so even queries on very large datasets can be completed within seconds. Due to Athena’s distributed, serverless architecture, it can support large numbers of users and queries, and computing resources like CPU and RAM are seamlessly provisioned.
Metadata-Driven Read Optimization
Modern data storage formats like ORC and Parquet rely on metadata which describes a set of values in a section of the data (sometimes called a stripe). If, for example, the user is interested in values < 5 and the metadata says all the data in this stripe is between 100 and 500, the stripe is not relevant to the query at all, and the query can skip over it.
This is a mechanism used by Athena to quickly scan huge volumes of data. To improve this mechanism, the user should cleverly organize the data (e.g. sorting by value) so that common filters can utilize metadata efficiently.
Treating S3 as Read Only
Another method Athena uses to optimize performance by creating external reference tables and treating S3 as a read-only resource. This avoid write operations on S3, to reduce latency and avoid table locking.
Athena Performance Issues
Athena is a distributed query engine, which uses S3 as its underlying storage engine. Unlike full database products, it does not have its own optimized storage layer. Therefore its performance is strongly dependent on how data is organized in S3—if data is sorted to allow efficient metadata based filtering, it will perform fast, and if not, some queries may be very slow.
In addition, Athena has no indexes—it relies on fast full table scans. This means some operations, like joins between big tables, can be very slow, which is why Amazon recommends running them outside of Athena.
We will cover the key best practices you need to implement in order to ensure high performance in Athena further in this article - but you can skip all of those by using Upsolver, which is a data lake ETL tool built for Amazon Athena. Upsolver automatically optimizes the storage layer and indexes the data, removing the need for any manual optimization. Check out our recent webinar to learn more.
Athena Product Limitations
According to Athena’s service limits, it cannot build custom user-defined functions (UDFs), write back to S3, or schedule and automate jobs. Amazon places some restrictions on queries: for example, users can only submit one query at a time and can only run up to five simultaneous queries for each account.
Athena restricts each account to 100 databases, and databases cannot include over 100 tables. The platform supports a limited number of regions.
7 Top Performance Tuning Tips for Amazon Athena
Broadly speaking, there are two main areas you would need to focus on to improve the performance of your queries in Athena:
- Optimizing the storage layer - partitioning, compacting and converting your data to columnar file formats make it easier for Athena to access the data it needs to answer a query, reducing the latencies involved with disk reads and table scans
- Query tuning - optimizing the SQL queries you run in Athena can lead to more efficient operations.
We'll proceed to look at six tips to improve performance - the first five applying to storage, and the last two to query tuning.
1. Partitioning Data
Partitioning breaks up your table based on column values such as country, region, date, etc. Partitions function as virtual columns and can reduce the volume of data scanned by each query, therefore lowering costs and maximizing performance. Users define partitions when they create their table.
Here's an example of how you would partition data by day - meaning by storing all the events from the same day within a partition:
You must load the partitions into the table before you start querying the data, by:
- Using the ALTER TABLE statement for each partition.
- Using a single MSCK REPAIR TABLE statement to create all partitions. To use this method your object key names must comply with a specific pattern (see documentation).
You can read more about partitioning strategies and best practices, and about how Upsolver automatically partitions data, in our guide to data partitioning on S3.
2. Compress and Split Files
You can speed up your queries dramatically by compressing your data, provided that files are splittable or of an optimal size (optimal S3 file size is between 200MB-1GB). Smaller data sizes mean less network traffic between Amazon S3 to Athena.
The Athena execution engine can process a file with multiple readers to maximize parallelism. When you have a single unsplittable file, only one reader can read the file, and all other readers are unoccupied.
It is advisable to use Apache Parquet or Apache ORC, which are splittable and compress data by default when working with Athena. If these are not an option, you can use BZip2 or Gzip with optimal file size. LZO and Snappy are not advisable because their compression ratio is low.
If you're ingesting the data with Upsolver, you can choose to store the Athena output in columnar Parquet or ORC, while the historical data is stored in a separate bucket on S3 in Avro.
3. Optimize File Sizes
Athena can run queries more productively when blocks of data can be read sequentially and when reading data can be parallelized. Check that your file formats are splittable, to assist with parallelism.
However, if files are very small (less than 128MB), the execution engine may spend extra time opening Amazon S3 files, accessing object metadata, listing directories, setting up data transfer, reading file headers, and reading compression dictionaries and more. If your files are too large or not splittable, the query processing halts until one reader has finished reading the complete file, which can limit parallelism.
Using Athena to query small data files will likely ruin your performance and your budget. Upsolver allows you to sidestep this issue by automatically merging small files for optimal performance when you define an output to Athena, using breakthrough indexing and compaction algorithms.
To understand the impact of merging small files, you can check out the following resources:
- In a test by Amazon, reading the same amount of data in Athena from one file vs. 5,000 files reduced run time by 72%.
- In a series of benchmarks test we recently ran comparing Athena vs BigQuery, we discovered staggering differences in the speed at which Athena queries return, based on whether or not small files are merged.
- We’ve also covered this topic in our previous article on dealing with small files on S3, where we reduced query time from 76 to 10 seconds when reading 22 million records.
4. Join Big Tables in the ETL Layer
Since Athena doesn't have indexes, it relies on full table scans for joins. This is fine when joining two small tables, but very slow and resource-intensive for joins that involve large tables.
To avoid this, you would pre-join the data using an ETL tool, before querying the data in Athena.
To understand how this works, you should check out our previous post where we showed how to use Upsolver to join impressions and clicks before querying the data in Athena.
5. Optimize Columnar Data Store Generation
This is another feature that Upsolver handles under the hood, but otherwise you would need to implement manually in the ETL job you run to convert your S3 files to columnar file formats.
Apache ORC and Apache Parquet are columnar data stores that are splittable. They also offer features that store data by employing different encoding, column-wise compression, compression based on data type, and predicate pushdown. Typically, enhanced compression ratios or skipping blocks of data involves reading fewer bytes from Amazon S3, resulting in enhanced query performance.
You can tune:
- The stripe size or block size parameter—the stripe size in ORC or block size in Parquet equals the maximum number of rows that may fit into one block, in relation to size in bytes. The larger the stripe/block size, the more rows you can store in each block. The default ORC stripe size is 64MB, and the Parquet block size is 128 MB. We suggest a larger block size if your tables have several columns, to make sure that each column block is a size that permits effective sequential I/O.
- Data blocks parameter—if you have over 10GB of data, start with the default compression algorithm and test other compression algorithms.
- Number of blocks to be skipped—optimize by identifying and sorting your data by a commonly filtered column prior to writing your Parquet or ORC files. This ensures the variation between the upper and lower limits within the block is as small as possible within each block. This enhances its ability to be pruned.
6. Optimize SQL Operations
Presto is the engine used by Athena to perform queries. When you understand how Presto functions you can better optimize queries when you run them. You can optimize the operations below:
- Performance issue—Presto sends all the rows of data to one worker and then sorts them. This uses a lot of memory, which can cause the query to fail or take a long time.
- Best practice—Use ORDER BY with a LIMIT clause. This will move the sorting and limiting to individual workers, instead of putting the pressure of all the sorting on a single worker.
- Example— SELECT * FROM lineitem ORDER BY l_shipdate LIMIT 10000
- Performance issue—When you join two tables, specifically the smaller table on the right side of the join and the larger table on the left side of the join, Presto allocates the table on the right to worker nodes and instructs the table on the left to conduct the join.
- Best practice— If the table on the right is smaller, it requires less memory and the query runs faster.
The exception is when joining several tables together and there is the option of a cross join. Presto will conduct joins from left to right as it still doesn’t support join reordering. In this case, you should specify the tables from largest to smallest. Make sure two tables are not specified together as this can cause a cross join.
- Example— SELECT count(*) FROM lineitem, orders, customer WHERE lineitem.l_orderkey = orders.o_orderkey AND customer.c_custkey = orders.o_custkey
- Performance issue—The GROUP BY operator hands out rows based on columns to worker nodes, which keep the GROUP BY values in memory. As rows are being processed, the columns are searched in memory; if GROUP BY columns are alike, values are jointly aggregated.
- Best practice—When you use GROUP BY in your query, arrange the columns according to cardinality from highest cardinality to the lowest. You can also use numbers instead of strings within the GROUP BY clause, and limit the number of columns within the SELECT statement.
- Example— SELECT state, gender, count(*) FROM census GROUP BY state, gender;
- Performance issue—Refrain from using the LIKE clause multiple times.
- Best practice—It is better to use regular expressions when you are filtering for multiple values on a string column.
- Example—SELECT count(*) FROM lineitem WHERE regexp_like(l_comment, 'wake|regular|express|sleep|hello')
7. Use Approximate Functions
When you explore large datasets, a common use case is to isolate the count of distinct values for a column using COUNT(DISTINCT column). For example, when you are looking at the number of unique users accessing a webpage.
When you do not need an exact number, for example, if you are deciding which webpages to look at more closely, you may use approx_distinct(). This function attempts to minimize the memory usage by counting unique hashes of values rather than entire strings. The downside is that there is a standard error of 2.3%.
SELECT approx_distinct(l_comment) FROM lineitem;
Given the fact that Athena is the natural choice for querying streaming data on S3, it's critical to follow these 6 tips in order to improve performance.
How to Improve your Query Performance by 10-15x with Upsolver ETL
While Upsolver won't tune your queries in Athena, it will remove around 95% of the ETL effort involved in optimizing the storage layer (something that would otherwise need to be done in Spark/Hadoop/MapReduce).
Upsolver abstracts the complexity of ETL operations, enabling declarative operations and data pipelines built with either SQL or a visual interface. All the various best practices that we covered in this article, and which are very complex to implement - such as merging small files and optimally partitioning the data - are invisible to the user and handled under the hood.
By automating best practices, Upsolver pipelines typically result in 10-15x faster queries in Athena compared to alternative solutions, and take a fraction of the timee to implement. Here's what this would look like in practice:
Interested in more in-depth best practices for improving Amazon Athena? We've got your free Athena performance white paper here.
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